Stage Light basics

- Sep 27, 2017 -

Introduction to stage lighting

Stage lighting is an important part of the performance space. Is based on the development of the circumstances of the characters and the specific scene required for a full range of visual environment lighting design, and purpose to design intent to visual reproduction of the way to the audience's artistic creation


Stage lighting features are the following:make the stage picture clearer: so that the audience can see what the stage or some of the corner without the audience to see (present), to enhance the performance of the stage performance: in line with the needs of the story, so that the background appears natural, play on the plot to set off, suggesting and induce the role of regulating the atmosphere (actors, the audience). Stage light use principle:intensity (referring to the brightness of light): must have enough light, so that the audience can see the color, appearance and details.distribution: including the use of light distribution and the direction of the direction of the distribution of the stage, the main body must be with the supporting and background and significantly different (color) can be distinguished brightness.color: rely on color paper, computer color, etc. to meet the needs of the story.changes: according to the plot needs, so that the light color, brightness, movement to change.


Stage lighting in the modern stage performances in the main role are:lighting performances, so that viewers see the actors and scenes of the image;guide the audience line of sight; shape the characters, contrast emotions and show stage illusion;create the space environment required for the play;rendering the atmosphere, display, empty conversion, highlight the conflict of drama and strengthen the stage rhythm, rich artistic appeal.


Stage lighting


Stage lighting according to the optical structure can be divided into floodlights, spotlights and slide three; according to the stage of the installation of the surface and there are light, slap in the face, foot light, column light, the top row of light, day light, Light of the points.


Modern theater performances, the commonly used lamps are the following

1,cheese,lights,Drum lights also known as PAR lights,(Parabolic Aluminum Reflector light)


Its structure is installed in the cylinder mirror bulb is also useful reflective bowl with bromine tungsten,The main feature is the injection of a more fixed beam, wide beam width and width, spot size can not be adjusted.Cheese lamp light structure is simple, easy to use. It has a strong ability to condenser, the projection beam of light is high,Can produce a stronger beam effect, in the stage space can create light beam, light wall, light curtain and other light and shadow modeling,


Stage lights in AC lights and PAR64 these two kinds of cheese lights, AC lights which are divided into two kinds:28V-250W, need to be used in series with 8;58V-500W, need to use four in series. PAR64 according to different light bulbs, is divided into CP60 / CP62.



2, flat convex (lens) spotlight

Flat convex lens Spotlight Its optical system consists of a spherical mirror and a flat convex lens,Is a reflection - transmission type lighting,Flat convex spotlight has a strong condenser and light control effect, suitable for light, slap in the face, light and other lights on the light spot lighting,


Lamps have SELECON / RAMA 5 ° - 60 ° / 1.2KW and SELECON / ARENA 4.5 ° - 60 ° / 2KW these two flat convex lens spotlights.



3, thread (lens) spotlight


The optical system of the spot lens spotlight is basically the same as the flat convex spotlight, except that the flat lens is replaced with a threaded lens.


Lamps are SELECON / RAMA 7 ° - 50 ° / 1.2KW, SELECON / ARENA 7 ° - 60 ° / 2KW and PH2000L-A 2KW these three spot lights.


4, imaging lights


Imaging lights, or forming lights, ellipsoid spotlights, The beam angle can be selected according to a variety of applications, the main features are like slides can be cut into the square, diamond, triangle and other shapes, or cast a variety of patterns required for the pattern, power also 1KW, 2KW, etc. Optional configuration.


Lamps in the imaging lights are the following:


① remote telephoto imaging spotlight SELECON / PACIFIC 5 °

② remote telephoto imaging spotlight SELECON / PACIFIC 5.5 ° -13 °

③ in the focus can be focused cold beam imaging spotlight SELECON / PACIFIC 12 ° -28 °

④ Focus in the focus of the imaging spotlight SELECON / PACIFIC 20 °

⑤ adjustable light beam imaging spotlight SELECON / PACIFIC 14 ° -35

⑥ in the focus of focusing imaging spotlight SELECON 40

⑦ short focus adjustable light beam imaging spotlight SELECON / PACIFIC 45 ° -75

⑧ short focus fixed focus imaging spotlight SELECON / PACIFIC 90 °

⑨ adjustable light beam imaging spotlight SELECON / PACIFIC 14 ° -35



5, Follow  light


The optical structure of the follow  light is basically the same as that of the imaging lamp, and its optical system is also composed of a condenser system and a projection subsystem,The optical structure of the follow light determines its optical properties and its function, its projected light beam of high light intensity, can project imaging, follow the actors in the show, strengthen the lighting, highlight the role of the image.


Lamps follow the use of light is 3KW xenon light chasing light

Xenonspot / XS-3000


6, the sky curtain light

The high-purity aluminum reflector is blended by sandblasting and is a direct-reflective astigmatism lamp with a high degree of reflector, which is a combination of multi-faceted reflector with asymmetric reflector. Lighting efficiency, lighting range, illumination is called even.

Lamps in the SELECON / Aurora CYC single curtain floodlight is such lamps.



7, computer lights

Computer light is a DMX512 or RS232 or PMX signal control of intelligent lighting, its light color, light spots, illumination are better than the above conventional lighting is developed in recent years, a smart lighting, often installed in the light, the top light, stage Post-step and other locations, the operation of the color, shape, plans, etc. can be programmed to run the program.

The main performance of the computer lights are the following:


1. Color change (color): the color of the computer lights change the function is very powerful, useful color wheel for the color of the jump-type changes, but also the use of RGB color mixing or CMY color mixing continuous discoloration.The use of color wheel discoloration is a disc with a number of plating film on the film, a color film will be rotated to the optical axis, you can appear this color shade, you can also have two color wheel, so not only monochrome Of the color types doubled, and can use two color wheel combination to get more color.In addition, the rotation of the color wheel can also produce beautiful shine, especially when the color wheel tells the rotation will produce a rainbow effect.In some computer lights in addition to color wheel discoloration with RGB (red, green, blue) color system or CMY (green, magenta, yellow) color system, the two color system can get the color gradient effect, you can from A very natural color transition to another color, not like a color wheel when the color change occurs.

2. pattern change (gobo):The change of the pattern of the fixture is also remarkable. The pattern piece has a hollow pattern of metal, and it is also useful for various patterns such as pure color filter, multi-color filter, Effect patterns and so on.


3. Prism effect: Prism effect is usually the use of special prism and other special lens formation, prism and graphics in combination, can produce multiple pattern image or three-dimensional effect, coupled with the prism's own rotation and adjustable speed and other functions, can produce a very shocking image.


4. Beam and vertical movement of the beam (pan & tilt):


The movement of the beam is dependent on the movement of the X and Y directions of the mirror or the horizontal rotation and vertical wobble of the lamp body.The horizontal rotation range of the mirror is generally about 150 ° -180 °, about 100 ° vertical, And can complete the whole movement in zero seconds.


5. soft effect (frost):Soft, also known as atomization, the use of a variety of soft film can be very soft and colorful effect of light, soft light range of the beam angle of up to 50 ° or more.


6. Dimmer & Strobe:As the computer lights generally use gas discharge lamp, can not use ordinary thyristor dimmer to dimmer, can only use mechanical methods to achieve gradual changes in the dark, and some computer lights in the form of shading board, and some with the band Slot the wheel to achieve dimming, strobe and cut light.


7. zoom (zoom):Zoom function can be adjusted at the same time the size of the spot and the actual situation, the beam angle of the range can generally be several degrees to ten degrees or ten degrees to more than twenty degrees.


8. Color temperature correction (CTC, GTC):As most of the computer lights using gas discharge lamp, color temperature is high, often using color temperature correction function, according to the need to adjust the color temperature. Some computer lights with multi-color color correction film, so only a few color temperature options, such as 6000K, 5600K, 3300K, etc. (CTC),The other uses a rotary color temperature correction disc that linearly changes the color temperature continuously in the range of 6000-3000K (GTC).


Jolly COLOR SPOT 1200PF, Jolly COLOR WASH 1200PF these two kinds of fixtures


Pattern computer lights, wash computer lights


8, LED lights


LED lights are also a PAR lamp, mainly according to the LED as a light source, can be composed of three primary colors RGB group of a variety of colors,Lamps in the Hao Yang SS343XCT (48 lamp beads, single beads 3W) this LED PAR lights.


9, laser light


Laser lights are generally divided into entertainment laser lights and outdoor laser lights. Laser light with bright colors, high brightness, good point, far range, easy to control, etc., looks more magical fantasy feeling.


The usual light of the stage lights


1, surface light:


Facial light is set in the stage outside the auditorium outside the hall, by the performance of the telephoto light group to the stage projection of the light bit. Its main lighting task is to illuminate the actors in the stage before the stage of the show, but also take into account the light on the chase and face light to replace the mouth of the top light to the rear area of the need for light, so the projection of the light as much as possible Stage depth development. There are two basic rules of light distribution: one is the use of parallel projection; the other is the left and right cross projection.


If the mouth of the top light cast light is too steep, or because the eaves, hanging scenes, the film screen and other empty suspension block Taiwan top light to the depth of the area after the irradiation, or because the building structure so that Taiwan can not hang a light, Face light is required to take into account the lighting after the show area. One of its lighting is to illuminate the front of the light spot to expand;


One in the face light, another lamp is projected into the back area and connected to the basic light in the front area.


2, ears:

Slap in the face, also known as outdoor metering, is the performance of the front side of the front of the lighting bit. Its role is to strengthen the actors side of the brightness, reduce the face caused by the steep face of the actor's shadow, but also to strengthen the character of the three-dimensional shape of the lamp.Lamps from top to bottom vertical arrangement, high light utilization. In order to fight the level of horizontal control of the stage, in the same elevation of the lamp is generally taken by the direction of the projector to the nearest side of the lamp, the direction of the side wall of the lamp to throw away; or in different elevation of the The upper and lower layers of the basic light to take a high distance, low close, the lamp as much as possible to choose a good performance of the long focal length or focal length spotlight, to avoid stray light illuminate the mouth frame and side wall.


3, column light (also known as Taiwan side light):


Light from both sides of the mouth of the projection, mainly for people or scenery on both sides of the lighting, increase the sense of three-dimensional, silhouette.Basic lighting tasks have two subordinate relationship: one is with the ears of convergence to show the rear area of the cross projection, one is connected with the flyover side of the light projection of the area (the building platform to the first side of the screen),Column light is only along the platform on both sides of the top-down mounted lights, the formation of vertical beam. The general law is the high light bulb projection distance, low light projection near.


4, the top light:

From the stage above the stage to the light, from front to back into a row of top light, two rows of top light, three rows of top light "" and so on,To be used for general stage lighting, enhance the stage illumination, and there are many scenes, props of fixed-point irradiation, mainly by the top light to solve.


op light has three lighting methods:① front projection: from the front and rear projection, the role of the front lighting. Usually with the front of the top light convergence to add the depth of the front light illumination, vertical projection: the role of the light in the atmosphere of light. Usually in each area there are several sets of color light vertical irradiation, the area is generally infected with a shade.: reverse projection: usually in each scenic area after the back row of a row of dome light, since the forward projection to strengthen the object of the three-dimensional and sense of space, so that the three-dimensional scene, the characters outline obvious. Some of the backlighting cloth is a large area of light, some local enhanced light.


5, Taiwan mouth top light:Taiwan top light is located in the building on the mouth close to the rear of the lamp after the lamp, also known as the top of the counterfeit. The main role is to show the front of the front of the lights, the basic light should be connected with the surface light. The method of cloth is also the same as the light


6, flyover side light:

Flyover side light on both sides of the stage, also known as side light. Side of the light of the lighting task, basically with the requirements of Taiwan Taiwan column light consistent, phase convergence. There are three ways to light: backward projection, projection to the area, forward projection. Side light on the characters and stereoscopic scenery modeling ability. Now the side of the light to take vertical system vertical lighting, high light bit to throw away, low light bit near the place.


7, foot:

The foot is the light projected from the table on the stage to the stage, mainly to assist the surface light and eliminate the shadows formed by the face and the jaw of the high light.It can make up for the actor activities to the forefront of the mouth due to the light caused by the face of the shadow of the face to help reduce or eliminate; drama, dance performances can use the foot of the actors lighting the second half of the characters clothing, dance are helpful.


8, the sky light:

From the top of the sky and below the sky to the light, mainly for the curtain of lighting and color changes.


9, flow light:

Located on both sides of the stage on the flow lighthouse, the main auxiliary bridge light, add the stage on both sides of the light or other specific light.


10, chasing light:


From the audience or other locations need to use the light bit, mainly used to track the actor or highlight a particular light, but also for the host, is a close-up of the art of the stage, play the role of finishing touch.


11, backlighting


Backlight: from the stage reverse projection of light (such as the top light, bridge light and other reverse exposure), can be sketched out the characters, King said the outline, enhance the sense of three-dimensional and transparent, but also as a specific light source.


12, fixed light

The stage according to the performance needs and effects of lighting focused on a point of light exposure.


13, music pool top light

From the top of the pool to invest in the music on the pool, mainly for the music pool general lighting, enhanced music pool illumination, and there are many scenes, props of fixed-point irradiation, mainly by the top light to solve.


14, column light

(Also known as side light): from both sides of the mouth of the projection of light, mainly for people or scenery on both sides of the lighting, increase the three-dimensional sense of silhouette.


Stage lighting related equipment

1, color changer

Color changer is the stage lighting commonly used in the ancillary equipment, according to the principle of color change can be divided into Yang flag and shutter, the most used is the shutter type color changer, Yang flag type color changer commonly used in Follow the front of the light.


Lighting stage lighting using XUANLI / XLCHR-E digital color changer



2, light console

At present the world's several well-known lighting console manufacturers: the United Kingdom Avolites; Germany's MA Lighting; the United States High End System (flying pig console); the highest utilization rate of the largest lighting console brand for the British Avolites, Its Pearl (pearl) series console once the domestic lighting division compulsory course. Germany MA Lighting company's MA series of lighting console with its network advantages in the large-scale performance market by the blitz.



The Fixture Console is essentially similar to an ordinary computer lighting console, so the console that controls the general stage lighting can be used to control the fixtures as long as there is a signal output that conforms to the DMX512 protocol, but the dedicated fixture control Taiwan is designed specifically for the control of the computer lights, the user interface will be better, so the operation will feel convenient and easy.There will be several potentiometers on the table of the fixture console to set the parameters for each channel of the fixture. Some potentiometers can also be used as "tools", and the tools are somewhat similar to those in the dimming console. With the table on a variety of buttons and rollers on the computer lights programming and repeat.


3, stage smoke machine

Stage smoke machine is the most commonly used in stage equipment, smoke emitted by the smoke machine to create a smoke atmosphere of the scene environment, with the smoke drift, can form a cloud effect, smoke atmosphere, and then with other stage lighting equipment , To achieve the desired stage effect on the scene.



4, snow machine


According to the performance of the stage requirements of the stage to create the snow.


5, dry ice machine

According to the effect of the show on the stage surface created by the cloud effect




6, bubble machine

Bubbles blown out of the bubble machine



7, the projector


Projector, also known as the projector, is a kind of image or video can be projected onto the curtains of the equipment, in the theater have a positive or rear projection of two, through different interfaces with the computer, VCD, DVD, BD, , DV, etc. to play the corresponding video signal.Projectors are widely used in homes, offices, schools, theaters, etc., depending on the way, CRT, LCD, DLP and other different types.


8, LED large screen

LED display (LED panel): LED is light emitting diode, LED abbreviation, referred to as LED. It is a kind of control by the semiconductor light-emitting diode display, its approximate look is by a lot of usually red light-emitting diodes, light off the light to show the characters. Used to display text, graphics, images, animation, market, video, video signals and other information display screen.


Stage lighting related knowledge points

Overview of stage lighting control equipment

Stage lighting control can be divided into three basic systems, namely the withered control system, computer lighting control system, color change control system. On the connection, through the simulation, digital (DMX), the network three times.


In the analog and digital age, the two major control systems are basically independent of each other, self-contained, into the network era. Three systems synthesize a large system. Strengthen the control function, to facilitate the management.


1, DMX512 protocol


The DMX512 protocol was first developed by the USTS (American Theater Technology Association) as a way to control dimmers from the console with standard digital interfaces. DMX512 beyond the analog system, but can not completely replace the analog system.The simplicity, reliability, and flexibility of the DMX512 make it a quick choice for funding. In addition to dimmers, a range of growing control devices is evidence.DMX512 is still a new field of science, with the rules on the basis of a variety of wonderful technology.


DMX512 is designed around the industry standard EIA-485 interface. EIA-485 is the interface, voltage, current and other "power" side, connector for the 5-pin XLR plug, seat, commonly used in the Canon (Canon) plug, seat.


At present, most applications use only a set of DMX signals, so the pin 4 is usually empty with pin 5.

2, network control transmission

In the stage lighting control network composed of the main part of the lighting console, digital light box, computer lights, color changer and other lighting equipment, but the application of network technology and some network equipment such as network allocators (usually switches and hubs) Cables, etc. to connect them,Formed a local area network (LAN). As the current dimmers, computer lights and other equipment are used DMX protocol, so the need for lighting control network Ethernet and DMX signal conversion between. In order to achieve remote monitoring also need to have video signal conversion. These are the stage lighting equipment manufacturers specializing in the development of the "network node" (node) to achieve


3, lighting console

To rely on the international common 512 signal to the brightness and various effects of editing, recording, control and other functions of the computer control equipment or manual control equipment. Usually can be divided into digital dimmers and analog dimmers.


4, power distribution cabinet and silicon box dimmer

The lighting power supply system is part of the theater power supply system. Theater power supply system mainly low-voltage distribution room, the transmission cable to the top of the silicon box composition. A large number of lights on the stage are dimmed by the dimmer, the dimmer is the main part of the stage lighting - incandescent light source to provide electricity.But there is a part of the need for dimming, we call it through, this part of the line is mainly to the use of gas discharge light source of the computer lights, high power cast slides and other equipment power supply, but also for lighting control of some mechanical accessories such as The color of the motor (after power supply signal distributor), effects, automatic lights and other power supply. So the lights in the stage should be distributed with a sufficient number of dimming and straight lines.


The Psychological Perception of Lighting

Different colors on the human physiological produce different stimuli, thus affecting people have different psychological feelings:

① cold and warm feeling: red, orange - warm, blue, purple - cold, black and white ash - cold

② distance feeling: red - near, blue - far;

③ light and heavy: red, orange - heavy, blue, white - light;

④ excitement: red - excited, blue - quiet.

Red: warm, irritating, reminiscent of the sun, red flag, blood, warm, warm, warm, love, auspicious, dynamic, positive, strong, exciting and encouraged.

Orange: similar to the red, belong to warm colors, it is hearty, happy, worry-free.


Yellow: is a warm tone, it is noble, bright, cheerful, cheerful, open, bright, wisdom, soft, active.

Green (green): reminiscent of green mountains and rivers, vibrant, symbol of youth, peace, health, eternal, fair, serene, calm, wisdom and humility.

Blue: can eliminate the tension, the formation of elegant, quiet atmosphere, reminiscent of the sky, the ocean, it is deep, big, long, pure, rational, calm, but also easy to produce dark, melancholy, poor, sad, mourning And the horror of emotion

Purple: close to the blue, the same cool colors, it is mysterious, romantic, elegant, noble, luxurious

White: cool colors, people think of snow and ice, cold, elegant, noble, pure, calm, but also easy to think of cold, empty, sad, terror

Similar colors: purple - red and purple - blue - yellow - yellow - yellow, similar to the orderly arrangement can bring a harmonious effect.

Complementary color: red - green blue - orange violet - yellow, complementary colors can increase the strength of each other.


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